Most of the forest hike, like the broader state-wide route, is symbolic – an estimate at best of where the original route might have been, although there is more certainty on some stretches, especially where historical maps and archaeological sites exist. This region of south-west Brazil has been a hotbed of archaeological digs since the 1970s in the search for traces of the Caminho de Peabiru, as it was once dense with indigenous populations (estimated at around two million people, mainly Guaranis, at its peak in the 16th Century).
Like many others I’ve spoken to, Rocha is fixated on the mystery of the trail and even published his post-grad thesis on the subject. Historians, astronomers and archaeologists have also been puzzling over it for decades, piecing together old maps, colonial records and oral histories to try and understand the trail’s origins and purpose.
The general consensus is that the main route in the network connected the east and west coasts of South America: it began from three starting points on the coast of Brazil (in São Paulo, Paraná and Santa Catarina states) that joined up in Paraná, continued across Paraguay to silver-rich Potosí and Lake Titicaca in Bolivia, pressed on to Cusco (the capital of the Incan Empire) in Peru and then down to the Peruvian and northern Chilean coast.
“In broad terms, we can say that the path followed the movement of the setting and rising sun,” wrote Bond in her most recent e-book, História do Caminho de Peabiru, published last year.
In it, Bond analyses a number of plausible hypotheses about the origin of the trail, concluding that the network of paths was likely created and used by various indigenous groups over the centuries, but that its defining characteristic was a desire to connect the Atlantic and the Pacific. “It doesn’t matter how many and of which people built it, but that it was a road that in a certain moment was seen by the indigenous as a specific, homogenous path that represented on Earth the movement of the Sun in the sky,” she wrote.
The ATP and COSAT (the Confederation of South American Tennis) announced today that the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, will host the first-ever ATP Challenger Tour workshop in South America from 14-15 July. Representatives from tournaments and national federations from across the continent will be welcomed to an interactive two-day forum, with the goal of making the burgeoning Challenger Tour circuit even stronger in the region.
The ATP Challenger Tour has made great strides in South America in recent years, as seen in the addition of 20 new tournaments since the start of the 2021 season. The forum aims to foster open dialogue between tournaments, federations and ATP staff, to enhance the existing structure in the region and provide new strategies for growth. The forum will also include the development of an integrated annual calendar in the region and discussions on global Challenger strategy, marketing and tournament standards.
Richard Glover, Vice-President of the ATP Challenger Tour, said: “South America is an exciting growth region for the Challenger Tour and we tip our hat to tournament promoters and federations for their contributions to professional tennis. This workshop aims to strengthen our partnership and provide a platform for strategic collaboration as we look to continue our growth in South America.”
Rafael Westrupp, President of COSAT, added: “The growth of the ATP Challenger Tour in South America is of great importance to all stakeholders across COSAT. We acknowledge that the circuit is the launch pad of professional tennis in the region, and its development is critical as we continue building a strong foundation for the future of South American tennis. The workshop is an important event, aligning with our strategic plan moving forward. We are excited by what’s to come for tennis on the continent”.
South America has long been a staple on the ATP Challenger Tour, since its first tournaments in Brazil in 1979. Since then, the circuit has traversed the continent, featuring in 62 different cities across Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. Last year, the Uruguay Open in Montevideo became the first Challenger Tour event in South America to celebrate its 20th anniversary.
In addition, the recent growth of Challenger tennis in South America has been reflected on the court. Players have taken advantage of new playing opportunities and a streamlined player pathway in the region. Last year, a record-tying 20 Challenger champions hailed from Argentina, with an additional 12 winners from Chile, Peru, Brazil, Uruguay and Ecuador combined. In total, 23 players from the continent featured in the year-end Top 200 of the Pepperstone ATP Rankings, with two – Sebastian Baez and Juan Manuel Cerundolo – qualifying for the Next Gen ATP Finals.
The ATP Challenger Tour is the launchpad of men’s professional tennis, featuring over 150 tournaments across more than 40 countries each season. The competition is intense, with players battling for Pepperstone ATP Rankings points and prize money, while developing their game with the collective goal of progressing onto the ATP Tour. For fans, it provides the opportunity to witness world-class tennis and future stars as they launch their professional journeys. Live stream the action throughout the year via Challenger TV on ATPTour.com.
ZIM-XI vs SA-A Dream11 Prediction, Fantasy Cricket Tips, Dream11 Team, Playing XI, Pitch Report, Injury Update of the match between Zimbabwe XI and South Africa A. They will play against each other for the fourth time in the five-match T20 series between them.
ZIM-XI vs SA-A South Africa A Tour of Zimbabwe 4th T20 Details:
The 4th T20 match between Zimbabwe XI and South Africa A will be played on 8th May at the Harare Sports Club.
This game is scheduled to start at 4:30 PM IST and live score and commentary can be seen on FanCode and CricketAddictor website.
ZIM-XI vs SA-A South Africa A Tour of Zimbabwe 4th T20 Preview:
Zimbabwe XI and South Africa A played three matches against each other in this five-match T20 series where South Africa A won both matches and is currently leading the series by 3-0.
In the third T20, South Africa A beat Zimbabwe XI by 142 runs. In that game, Zimbabwe XI won the toss and decided to bowl first. Coming to bat, South Africa posted 184 runs on the board where Ryan Rickelton and Heinrich Klaasen smashed 47 runs and 56 runs respectively for the team. Tanaka Chivanga took 3 wickets for Zimbabwe XI.
Coming to chase, Zimbabwe XI failed to chase down the target and managed to put only 42 runs on the board whereas Richmond Mutumbami managed to score only 16 runs. Junior Dala picked up 3 wickets while Bjorn Fortuin and Lizaad Williams grabbed 2 wickets each dot South Africa A.
ZIM-XI vs SA-A South Africa A Tour of Zimbabwe 4th T20 Weather Report:
The temperature is expected to hover around 26°C on the matchday with 56% humidity and 8 km/hr wind speed. There are no chances of precipitation during the game.
ZIM-XI vs SA-A South Africa A Tour of Zimbabwe 4th T20 Pitch Report:
The Harare Sports Club supplies a neutral wicket where both the departments are expected to receive a decent amount of help from the surface. Spinners will play a crucial role in the middle overs.
Average 1st innings score:
The average first innings score on this wicket is 155 runs.
Record of chasing teams:
The team batting second has great records here. They have maintained a winning percentage of 60 on this ground.
ZIM-XI vs SA-A South Africa A Tour of Zimbabwe 4th T20 Injury Update:
(Will be added when there is an update)
ZIM-XI vs SA-A South Africa A Tour of Zimbabwe 4th T20 Probable XIs:
The 4th T20 match of the South Africa A Tour of Zimbabwe 2022 will take place on the 8th of May 2022 between South Africa A and Zimbabwe XI at the Harare Sports Club, Harare, Zimbabwe.
LIVE SCORES – Match 16- Athreya Cricket Club vs Eranakulam Cricket Club
Current Form South Africa A and Zimbabwe XI:
South Africa A have defeated Zimbabwe XI by 142 runs in the third T20 as well and gained a 3-0 lead in the 5 match T20 series.
Zimbabwe XI won the toss and elected to field first. South Africa A could not get off to a good start and lost 2 wickets for 28 runs. After this phase, Heinrich Klaasen came to the crease and he along with Ryan Rickelton smashed the bowlers to all parts of the ground. Heinrich Klaasen made 56 off 31 balls and just when he was looking dangerous, he lost his wicket. Ryan Rickelton was the next one to follow the suit and got out after making 47 in 35 deliveries. Once both these batters got out, the South Africa A innings started losing pace and didn’t look like they will get to a total past 200. There was good ball striking shown by the late order batters of South Africa A, and they got to a total of 184 for 8 in 20 overs.
For Zimbabwe XI, Tanaka Chivanga picked up 3 wickets for just 29 runs in his spell.
During the chase, Bjorn Fortuin removed Wesley Madhevere in the first over of the second innings. It triggered a collapse that we have not witnessed in recent times. One after the other, Zimbabwe XI batters chose the wrong shot to play and kept losing their wicket. South African bowlers kept it very tight throughout and kept picking up wickets at regular intervals. Zimbabwe XI got bowled out for 42 by the end of the 12th over, losing the match by 142 runs.
For South Africa A, Junior Dala picked up 3 wickets for 12 runs.
Let’s have a look at the squads:
Richmond Mutumbami, Nyasha Mayavo, Prince Masvaure, Milton Shumba, Takudzwanashe Kaitano, Kevin Kasuza, Sikandar Raza, Ryan Burl, Wesley Madhevere, Ernest Masuku, Tendai Chatara, Donald Tiripano, Wellington Masakadza, Tanaka Chivanga, Craig Ervine
South Africa A
Heinrich Klaasen, Ryan Rickelton, Theunis de Bruyn, Reeza Hendricks, Khaya Zondo, Tony de Zorzi, Lesiba Ngoepe, Andile Phehlukwayo, Jason Smith, Bjorn Fortuin, Lizaad Williams, Lutho Sipamla, Gerald Coetzee, Prenelan Subrayen, Daryn Dupavillon
Cricket Betting Tips and Match Predictions* – PrePlay
Who will win the toss? – South Africa A
Who will win?– South Africa A
Top Batsman (Runs Scored) –Heinrich Klaasen (South Africa A) , Craig Ervine (Zimbabwe XI)
Top Bowler (Wickets taken) – Daryn Dupavillon (South Africa A), Wellington Masakadza (Zimbabwe XI)
Most Sixes – Heinrich Klaasen (South Africa A), Sikandar Raza (Zimbabwe XI)
Player of the Match- Heinrich Klaasen (South Africa A)
Team Scores Batting first – South Africa A 180+, Zimbabwe XI 90+
Match Handicap: South Africa A
LIVE STREAMING South Africa A Tour of Zimbabwe 2022:
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FORT LAUDERDALE, Fla. – A low cost carrier will soon be the only airline to fly directly to Europe from Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport ahead of the busiest travel season of the year.
“We have already seen that we have massive interests from America and Europe to fly between Norway and Fort Lauderdale. We have a lot of bookings on both routes,” Norse Atlantic Airways CEO Bjorn Larsen said.
Norse Atlantic Airways, the start-up company, is entering the market on the heels of a busy summer travel season where demand is expected to outweigh capacity in terms of available seats across the airline industry. Experts say that can cause problems.
According to the travel detective, Peter Greenburg, there’s a shortage of air traffic controllers.
“The whole system is short staffed and they’re gonna have to work thorough that and much more challenging now is we’re heading into the summer,” Greenburg said.
That issue mixed in with bad weather and various space launches by NASA has the routes planes fly severely reduced, and that’s led to mass cancellations, causing more frustrated flyers than in the past.
“The airspace that they’re adding is at lower altitudes, which means they burn more fuel so your trip will take longer,” Greenburg said.
Norse is welcoming the challenge with open arms.
“In case of disruptions, we will of course take care of customers and we are equipped as anybody else to do that, and actually maybe a bit more than most long haul airlines because we have an abundance of aircraft right now, ”Larsen said.
The FAA is looking to hire good, dedicated air traffic controllers to curb this shortage problem, but experts say you can reduce the possibility of delays if you catch the first flight out on any given day.
Norse Atlantic Airways will begin operating at FLL, and flights to and from Norway will begin next month. They plan to expand to places like Paris and London in the future.
Copyright 2022 by WPLG Local10.com – All rights reserved.
ZIM-XI vs SA-A Dream11 Prediction, Fantasy Cricket Tips, Dream11 Team, Playing XI, Pitch Report, Injury Update of the match between Zimbabwe XI and South Africa A. They will play against each other for the second time in the three-match OD series between them.
This game is scheduled to start at 12:45 PM IST and live score and commentary can be seen on FanCode and CricketAddictor website.
ZIM-XI vs SA-A South Africa A Tour of Zimbabwe 2nd OD Preview:
Zimbabwe XI played one match against South Africa A where Zimbabwe XI won that game and is currently leading the series by 1-0.
In the first OD match, Zimbabwe XI beat South Africa A by 5 runs. In that game, Zimbabwe XI won the toss and decided to field first.
Coming to bat, South Africa A posted 273 runs for the loss of 7 wickets, where Heinrich Klaasen and Andile Phehlukwayo smashed 58 runs and 87 runs respectively. Donald Tiripano picked up 4 wickets for Zimbabwe XI.
Coming to chase, Zimbabwe XI successfully chased down the target in the 49 overs, Prince Masvaure and Sikandar Raza stacked 49 runs and 59 runs respectively for the team. Lizaad Williams and Reeza Hendricks took 2 wickets each for South Africa A.
South Africa A will be hoping to make a comeback here while Zimbabwe XI will look to net the series with a win here.
ZIM-XI vs SA-A South Africa A Tour of Zimbabwe 2nd OD Weather Report:
The temperature is expected to hover around 24°C on the matchday with 56% humidity and 8-12 km/hr wind speed. There are no chances of precipitation during the game.
ZIM-XI vs SA-A South Africa A Tour of Zimbabwe 2nd OD Pitch Report:
The pitch at the Harare Sports Club provides a neutral wicket where both the departments are anticipated to receive a reasonable amount of help from the surface. Spinners can come lethal in the middle overs while pacers will be in the game throughout.
Average 1st innings score:
The average first innings score on this wicket is 250 runs.
Record of chasing teams:
The team batting second has great records here. They have maintained a winning percentage of 60 on this ground.
ZIM-XI vs SA-A South Africa A Tour of Zimbabwe 2nd OD Injury Update:
(Will be added when there is an update)
ZIM-XI vs SA-A South Africa A Tour of Zimbabwe 2nd OD Probable XIs:
Suggested Playing XI No.2 for ZIM-XI vs SA-A Dream11 Team:
Keeper – Heinrich Klaasen
Batsmen – Reeza Hendricks, Prince Masvaure, Milton Shumba
All-rounders – Andile Phehlukwayo (C), Sikandar Raza (VC), Wesley Madhevere, Jason Smith
Bowlers – Donald Tiripano, Lizaad Williams, Tendai Chatara
ZIM-XI vs SA-A South Africa A Tour of Zimbabwe 2nd OD Expert Advice:
Reeza Hendricks will be a good captaincy choice for the small leagues as well as mini grand leagues. Milton Shumba and Jason Smith are among the punt-picks here. The best-suggested fantasy/Dream11 combination for this game is 1-3-3-4.
ZIM-XI vs SA-A South Africa A Tour of Zimbabwe 2nd OD Probable Winners:
South Africa A is expected to make a comeback in the series and win this match.
Sally Poncet first came to South Georgia in 1977. Back then, she said, the sub-Antarctic island was as gorgeous as it is today: A spine of mountains, some 100 miles long, defines the terrain; glaciers drape down from the peaks, with verdant slopes running up to meet them; glistening beaches wrap around the shoreline. But in those days, Ms. Poncet recalled, the island had an empty feel to it. “You felt a lack,” she explained. “It wasn’t alive like you knew it could be.”
Nobody knows South Georgia the way Ms. Poncet does. An independent field ecologist, she has surveyed or counted everything from its grasses and albatrosses to its elephant seals. Her second son was born on a sailboat here in 1979. Now, at the age of 69, she continues to work in the field — just as she did 45 years ago.
South Georgia is part of a remote British Overseas Territory with no permanent population. It sits on the edge of the Southern Ocean over 900 miles northeast of the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula and almost 900 miles east of the Falkland Islands.
Its history reads like a list of offenses against nature, including commercial sealing, commercial whaling and the introduction of nonnative species, including rats and reindeer.
Now that hunting is history and the invasive mammals have been eradicated, Ms. Poncet and her colleagues are witnessing a remarkable ecological recovery. The scientific literature delivers a muted version of it, but in listening to the scientists — who are driven by data and not prone to hyperbole — their joy and wonder comes tumbling out. Among the terms they used to describe the island’s revival: “miraculous,” “spectacular,” “really emotional,” and “a beacon of hope.”
Of course, in the era of climate change, nothing is that simple. But the rebirth of this island is readily observable. All you have to do is listen.
The first person known to explore the island — and to plant a flag — was Captain James Cook, in 1775. He called it “savage and horrible,” but he also found millions of Antarctic fur seals lining the beaches, which prompted a rush to harvest their pelts. The sealers arrived in 1786; over the next century, millions of animals were killed, their fur turned into luxury items such as top hats. As a result, the fur seal was almost wiped out.
At the same time, hunters killed southern elephant seals, including the enormous bulls that can reach 8,000 pounds. Their blubber was converted into oil, and the hunting continued into the 1960s. As both of these species disappeared, so, too, did their barks and roars — and the beaches grew quieter and quieter.
Whaling at South Georgia began with Carl Anton Larsen, a Norwegian captain and businessman who established a settlement called Grytviken in 1904. Mr. Larsen and his crew killed their first whale on Christmas Eve, and by the end of that season they had caught 183 whales, primarily humpbacks, without ever leaving the bay.
Over the next 60 years, a handful of shore-based stations processed 175,250 whales, a figure that doesn’t include the pelagic factory ships — large oceangoing vessels that could process whole carcasses entirely on board — that operated with impunity throughout the Southern Ocean. This massive harvest left blue whales, the largest animal ever known to exist, critically endangered.
When whaling on South Georgia ended for good in 1965, it, too, left behind a largely silent ocean.
Major human impacts continued on land. Mr. Larsen brought reindeer to South Georgia so that the whalers had something to hunt. While glaciers, which act as natural partitions, confined the animals to two of South Georgia’s peninsulas, their populations still grew steadily, especially after the stations closed. In many places, the reindeer trampled the fragile landscape.
Rats and mice also accompanied the sealers and whalers. Rats in particular found plenty of bird eggs and chicks to feed on, including those of two endemic species: the South Georgia pintail, a small duck; and the South Georgia pipit, the island’s only songbird. These birds were literally swallowed up — and their songs vanished, too.
Progressing from such conditions to, as Ms. Poncet said, “an island that is settling back into its own natural rhythm” is in some ways very simple: Leave it alone.
Sealing and whaling ended largely for commercial reasons; later, the practices were banned. The only all-island fur seal census took place in 1991, about 200 years after the peak of the fur sealing era, and the estimate was 1.5 million animals. Today, that number is likely between three and six million and still rising. Southern elephant seals, last surveyed in the ’90s, are estimated to be stable at 400,000 animals. These populations are coming back on their own; our role is to stand back and let it happen, which includes protecting their food sources such as krill and squid.
One result of these changes is a soundscape replete with squeaking, barking, belching, groaning and growling.
“Seals are calling everywhere,” said Ms. Poncet., “It’s constant — absolutely constant noise.”
Counting whales and understanding their habits can be an arduous task, but Jen Jackson, a whale biologist with the British Antarctic Survey, is working on it. Dr. Jackson’s research methods include professional observers, biopsy darts, fecal samples, droplets of whale breath, acoustic detectors and satellite tags. Using historical catch counts and new scientific data, her team has concluded that humpbacks are back to their pre-whaling numbers; there are 24,500 of them in the Scotia Sea, which surrounds South Georgia.
Blue whale recovery has been much slower, and their population estimate, not yet released, will be based on photo identification. But one of the best signs, Dr. Jackson said, comes from the sounds she hears underwater. “What you’ve got in the underwater environment now is blue whales calling nearly continuously,” she said, noting that the whales were nearly wiped out entirely.
“It just makes my heart sing,” she added. “We are watching the ocean rewild itself.”
Ridding the island of the invasive land mammals — reindeer, rats and mice — required a monumental effort and over $13 million, but the payoff for wildlife has been extraordinary. During the summer of 2013, teams that included both Indigenous Sámi reindeer herders and Norwegian marksmen came to eradicate a reindeer population of 6,700 animals. The marksmen returned in 2014; they were so efficient that for every 10 animals they killed, they used just 11 bullets. By 2015, the island was free of reindeer.
Travel Trends That Will Define 2022
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Looking ahead. As governments across the world loosen coronavirus restrictions, the travel industry hopes this will be the year that travel comes roaring back. Here is what to expect:
Lodging. During the pandemic, many travelers discovered the privacy offered by rental residences. Hotels hope to compete again by offering stylish extended-stay properties, sustainable options, rooftop bars and co-working spaces.
Rental cars. Travelers can expect higher prices, and older cars with high mileage, since companies still haven’t been able to expand their fleets. Seeking an alternative? Car-sharing platforms might be a more affordable option.
Cruises. Despite a bumpy start to the year, thanks to Omicron’s surge, demand for cruises remains high. Luxury expedition voyages are particularly appealing right now, because they typically sail on smaller ships and steer away from crowded destinations.
Destinations. Cities are officially back: Travelers are eager to dive into the sights, bites and sounds of a metropolis like Paris or New York. For a more relaxing time, some resorts in the U.S. are pioneering an almost all-inclusive model that takes the guesswork out of planning a vacation.
Experiences. Travel options centered around sexual wellness (think couples retreats and beachfront sessions with intimacy coaches) are growing popular. Trips with an educational bent, meanwhile, are increasingly sought after by families with children.
Meanwhile, another effort was underway: the largest rat eradication project in history. Relying on ship support, helicopters and the expertise of 39 team members (ranging from logisticians to camp cooks), these specialists sprinkled 333 tons of specially formulated poison pellets across every square inch of rat habitat, and then waited. In the austral summer, they monitored for rat presence, using (among other things) sticks painted with peanut butter. The island was declared rat-free in 2018 — and the mice were gone, too.
The pipits poured in from rat-free areas so fast that scientists didn’t have time to document their recovery. Because these birds can lay four clutches of between three and five eggs per year, their numbers grew in a flash. Meanwhile, those living at the main British Antarctic Survey station found themselves watching large rafts of pintail ducks in the harbor during wintertime, and flushing pipits and pintails from the tussac grass during spring.
“It was like Grytviken was haunted by pintails,” said Jamie Coleman, a biologist who has spent three years on South Georgia. “You could constantly hear their whistling throughout the buildings.”
Not every species has experienced the same rebound. Macaroni penguin populations are plummeting, even as king penguin numbers rise — in part because glacial retreat reveals more breeding habitat for king penguins to exploit.
Sei whales are still less common than they used to be, and the light-mantled albatross, a gorgeous pewter bird whose call Ms. Poncet refers to as the “soul of South Georgia,” is quickly disappearing.
The impacts on these species, including climate change and associated changes in the ocean, are much more difficult to contend with.
Back on the island, Ms. Poncet said she sometimes steps outside during the night to listen to the seabirds. This season she could hear white-chinned petrels and prions. “Their calls are coming back now through the night where it was silent before,” she said, adding that the birds’ revival is just the beginning of the island’s ecological changes. “Every year I get back I just think, wow, how lucky can I be to see it change year on year.”
“We are able to do good things — we are,” she added. “And South Georgia is one of those examples.”